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什么是真正的学习?

长期培养自主学习者, 对概念的深刻理解是教育者的一个关键目标. 

真正的学习(或主动学习)是 史蒂夫Revington“活到老,学到老。. It is a style of learning that encourages students to create a tangible, 有用的, 高质量的宝盈app下载/成果与他们的世界分享.”

连接ing what instructors teach to real-world issues and problems is at the core of authentic learning. 换句话说, authentic learning requires students to engage in meaningful activities and actively think about what it is they are learning. 它是被动语态的反面, teacher-led classroom in which students memorize and then regurgitate what they hear and see. 

Authentic learning makes course concepts relevant to students so that they can retain the information at hand and pivot the knowledge to real-world situations. It involves centering students and their ideas while nurturing them along the educational journey through 频繁,可能发生失事的评估, 建设性的反馈, as well as assessment design that enables a student-instructor relationship. 

为什么真正的学习是必要的?

Revington继续, “一个宝盈app下载坐在书桌前, taking notes and regurgitating curriculum content uses a minute amount of their potential. 在一般情况下, 宝盈app下载们学着安静地坐着, 反应反过来, follow instructions and complete tests for a control teacher. 没有相关性, 个人联系, 多感官参与和目的, content driven curricula begins [sic] to evaporate once the test has been taken.” 

这样的 模仿, 尽管这是一个长期存在的教学传统, doesn’t necessarily prepare students for a changing post-industrial world. 在一个 2018石英的文章, 埃里森·施拉格写道, 工厂老板要求温顺, agreeable workers who would show up on time and do what their managers told them. Sitting in a classroom all day with a teacher was good training for that. Early industrialists were instrumental, then, in creating and promoting universal education. 现在bbin安卓版下载要进入一个新的, 后工业时代, it is worth reflecting on how our education evolved to suit factory work, 如果这个模型仍然有意义.”

根据2013年的研究, “The education landscape has been shifting towards a stronger emphasis on higher-order level of thinking such as creative thinking, 批判性思维, and problem solving as research shows that current graduates lack transcending skills like 沟通 skills and problem-solving skills, 在这个行业中哪些是至关重要的. The most important skills employers look for when hiring new employees are teamwork, 批判性思维, 沟通...或创新思维. 然而, 在许多大学, the mode of teaching is still conventional pedagogy and students tend to learn passively particularly when content is taught in a way that causes students to memorize without thinking critically about what they are memorizing….There is a call for more emphasis to be placed on authentic learning as it provides an environment that cultivates students who would be prepared for the complex working world” (朱,麦,等.).

为什么真正的学习很重要?

霍勒斯·曼恩认为,教育是“伟大的均衡器”.” Our world has changed—and it is safe to say a prepared student is one with the ability to communicate original ideas. ”An important characteristic of authentic learning is that there are multiple possible outcomes or solutions to a problem rather than a single correct answer. This can encourage students [sic] ask questions and think outside the box” (轮2018). 

此外, 真正的学习培养内在的动机, 也就是说,由内部奖励驱动的行为, 因为工作本身的性质是令人满意的. 外在动机, 另一方面, involves engagement based on external rewards or to avoid punishment. Among educators’ goals is to foster a love of learning for its own merits—and authentic learning is critical to engendering such intrinsic motivation. 

In Hechinger Report, Tara García Mathewson报道 州, “Inspiring students’ intrinsic motivation to learn is a more effective strategy to get and keep students interested. 而且还不止这些. 当宝盈app下载以这种方式学习时,他们实际上学得更好. 他们 付出更多努力, 处理更有挑战性的任务, and end up gaining a more profound understanding of the concepts they study.通过动手解决问题来学习, students “tackle open-ended assignments that require sustained effort; they get the power to choose what and how they learn; they finish projects with something to show for their learning in portfolios and concrete products; they set their own academic goals; they need never focus more on a grade than the process of learning.” 

教师有哪些方法可以培养真正的学习?

  • 做宝盈app下载的榜样,并表现出对学习的热情. Ask students to share information about themselves in class or in a letter to the instructor. 换句话说, 给宝盈app下载一种归属感
  • Use examples so students know how the material can be of use. 为学习活动提供有意义的理由.
  • 明确表达对每项任务的期望. 提供 评估准则 考虑与宝盈app下载共同制定规则.
  • 提供 建设性的反馈 early and often to help students understand next steps in their learning journey. 包括 积极的反馈.
  • 提供 频繁,可能发生失事的评估 所以宝盈app下载可以安全地失败,并从错误中学习. 
  • 维护公平的评估. 避免按曲线评分, so students feel they have the opportunity to achieve the highest standards. 
  • 让宝盈app下载控制自己的学习. 给他们机会 选择自己的主题或阅读清单 并提供一个 多样的评估形式, so they have control over how they demonstrate their understanding

结论

Educators want the best outcomes for their students in an evolving world. 如果教育是积极改变的基础, 然后教育学, 它是这样的, 必须模拟bbin安卓版下载想看到的世界吗. 真正的学习以宝盈app下载的需求为中心,在这样做的过程中, 培养创新思维和创意, 同时支持整个教育旅程. 

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